The domination of war and religion during the medieval era in europe
Importance of religion in the middle ages
Episodes of widespread famine and disease devastated the population of the German states and, to a lesser extent, the Low Countries and Italy, while bankrupting many of the powers involved. Orthodoxy: Conforming to the Christian faith as represented in the creeds of the early church. The arts, architecture and teachings of this era bear testimony to this fact. The population of the Czech lands declined by a third. When Boniface died in , the eight cardinals of the Roman conclave offered to refrain from electing a new pope if Benedict would resign, but when his legates refused on his behalf, the Roman party then proceeded to elect Innocent VII. A vast number of minor independent duchies, free imperial cities, abbeys, bishoprics, and small lordships of sovereign families rounded out the Empire. Men of God were no longer expected to stay behind the walls of a cloister. This was a partial model for the Concordat of Worms Pactum Calixtinum , which resolved the Imperial investiture controversy with a compromise that allowed secular authorities some measure of control but granted the selection of bishops to their cathedral canons. One authority puts France's losses against Austria at 80, killed or wounded and against Spain including the years —, after Westphalia at , dead or disabled. The laws and rules of the land, public policies and governance of the people were all affected by religion during the Middle Ages. The peace finally ended in the Schmalkaldic War German : Schmalkaldischer Krieg , a brief conflict between and between the forces of Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League. It consisted of a series of economic as well as religious revolts by Anabaptist peasants , townsfolk and nobles. Financial crashes were common; the Spanish crown, the heaviest borrower in Europe, suffered repeated bankruptcies in , —77, , , , and
Henry IV's rejection of the decree lead to his excommunication and a ducal revolt; eventually Henry received absolution after dramatic public penance barefoot in Alpine snow and cloaked in a hairshirt see Walk to Canossathough the revolt and conflict of investiture continued. The end of lay investiture threatened to undercut the power of the Empire and the ambitions of noblemen for the benefit of Church reform.
Negative effects of the church in the middle ages
On April 8, the cardinals elected a Neapolitan when no viable Roman candidates presented themselves. Along with other nomads and horse and camel warriors, the Muslims rode through the fallen empire, wreaking havoc and seeding intellectual and social heresy in their wake. Christian Campaigns against other Religions Since Christianity was the dominant religion during the Middle Ages, attempts to purify the church and society led to many Christian campaigns against other religions. The Synod of Whitby of , though not as decisive as sometimes claimed, was an important moment in the reintegration of the Celtic Church of the British Isles into the Roman hierarchy, after having been effectively cut off from contact with Rome by the pagan invaders. Its members eventually intended the League to replace the Holy Roman Empire itself,  and each state was to provide 10, infantry and 2, cavalries for mutual defense. Efforts were made to end the schism through force or diplomacy. Of course, as with most historical claims, exceptions are found in some medieval literature.
It stated that: German princes could choose the religion Lutheranism or Catholicism of their realms according to their conscience. This was evident from the Cologne War —83a conflict initiated when the prince-archbishop of the city converted to Calvinism.
He reigned briefly from June 26,until his death inwhen he was succeeded by John XXIII, who won some, but not universal, support. Lutherans living in an ecclesiastical state under the control of a bishop could continue to practice their faith.
The emergence of modern Europe, — Economy and society The 16th century was a period of vigorous economic expansion. The contemporary Catholic Church says that it is the continuation of the early Christian community established by Jesus. Sometime between and the Byzantine Emperor Leo III the Isaurian ordered that an image of Jesus prominently placed over the Chalke gate, the ceremonial entrance to the Great Palace of Constantinople, be removed, and replaced with a cross.
Thus, the Investiture Contest was part of the Church's attempt to reform the episcopate and provide better pastoral care.
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